**CONVERSION TABLES & FORMULAS**

**1 Bushel Equals Metric Weights and Conversions Ethanol**

Wheat and Soybeans = 60 lbs. 1,000 grams = 1 kilogram

1 bushel of corn = 2.7 gallons of Ethanol

Corn, Sorghum and Rye = 56 Ibs. Barley Grain = 48 Ibs.

100 kilograms = 1 quintal Wet Mill

1 bushel of corn = 9.5-10 litres of ethanol

Barley Malt = 34 Ibs. 1 tonne = 1,000 kilograms = 10 quintals Dry Mill

1 bushel of corn = 9.8 litres of ethanol

Oats = 32 Ibs. 1 kilogram = 2.240622 Ibs.

1 quintal = 220.462 Ibs.

**Crude Oil**

**Bushels To Tonnes**

1 tonne = 1.102 short tons 1 barrel = 42 US gallons = 34.97 UK (imperial) gallons

Wheat and Soybeans = bushels x 0.027216 1 tonne = 0.9842 long tons = 0.136 tonne (approx)

Barley Grain = bushels x 0.21772 20 pennyweights = 1 ounce 1 barrel per day (b/d) = 50 tonnes per year (approx)

Corn, Sorghum and Rye = bushels x 0.025401 16 ounces = 1 Ib. Crude Oil Dollars per Barrel / 5.826 = Dollars per Mmbtu

Oats = bushels x 0.014515 1 troy ounce = 31.103 grams

1 troy ounce = 0.0311033 kilogram

**Natural Gas Conversion Factors**

**Yields **1 troy (fine) ounce = 480 grains 1 Cubic Feet (cf) = 1,031 BTU

Wheat: bushels per acre x 0.6725 = quintals per hectare 1 troy ounce = 155.52 metric carats 1 Cubic Meter = 35.315 Cubic Feet

Rye, Corn: bushels per acre x 0.6277 = quintals per hec.

1 troy pound = 0.37224 kilogram Deca Therm = 10 Therms = 1 Million Btu = 1 MMBtu

Barley: bushels per acre x 0.5380 = quintals per hectare 1 kilogram = 32.1507 troy ounces 1,000 cf = 1 MMBtu = 0.0001 Nat Gas NYMEX Contract

Oats: bushels per acre x 0.3587 = quintals per hectare 1 tonne = 32,151 troy ounces. 10 Million cf = 10,000 MMbtu = 1 Nat Gas NYMEX Contract

1 Billion cf= 1,000,000 MMBtu = 100 Nat Gas NYMEX Contracts

**U.S. Liquid Volumes and Conversions**

**1 Tonne (metric ton) Equals **1 ounce = 1.8047 cubic inches = 29.6 millilitres

**Fertilizer**

1 cubic meter of water 1 cup = 8 ounces = 0.24 litre = 237 millilitres 34 gigajoules natural gas makes

2204.622 Ibs. 1 pint = 16 ounces = 0.48 litre = 374 millilitres 1 tonne anhydrous ammonia

1,000 kilograms 1 gallon = 4 quarts = 231 cubic inches = 3.785 litres 1 Nat Gas NYMEX contract makes

22.046 hundredweight = 8.345 Ibs 298.53 tons anhydrous ammonia

10 quintals Gallons/1405.88 = Metric Tonnes 33,500 cubic ft nat gas makes 1 ton anhydrous ammonia

36.7437 bushels of Wheat or Soybeans 1 litre = 1.0567 quarts = 1,000 millilitres = 1,000 grams 1 million BTU’s = 1.054615 gigajoule

39.3683 bushels of Corn, Sorghum or Rye 1 millilitre = 0.033815 fluid ounce

45.9296 bushels of Barley Grain 1 litre = 33.814 fluid ounces

**Orange Juice**

68.8944 bushels of Oats 1 imperial gallon = 277.42 cubic inches = 1.2 US Gall.

1 metric ton of 65 degree brix = 344.8 gallons at 42 degree brix

**Precise definitions**

. 1 **U.S. bushel** = 8 corn/dry gallons = 2150.42 cu in ≈ 35.2391 liter ≈ 9.30918 wine/liquid gallons. The original definition was the volume of a cylinder 18.5 in (46.99 cm) in diameter and 8 in (20.32 cm) high, which gives an irrational number of cubic inches, but later this bushel was redefined as 2150.42 cubic inches, about 1 part per million less.

1 **Imperial bushel** = 8 Imperial gallons ≈ 36.3687 dm³ ≈ 2219.36 cu. in.

1 bushel = 4 pecks

**Use as unit of weight**

**A bushel is an imperial and U.S. customary unit of dry volume, equivalent in each of these systems to 4 pecks or 8 gallons. It is used for volumes of dry commodities (not liquids), most often in agriculture. It is abbreviated as bsh. or bu. In modern usage, the dry volume is usually only nominal, with bushels referring to standard weights instead.**

Bushels are now most often used as units of mass or weight rather than of volume. The bushels in which grains are bought and sold on commodity markets or at local grain elevators, and for reports of grain production, are all units of weight. This is done by assigning a standard weight to each commodity that is to be measured in bushels. These bushels depend on the commodities being measured and the moisture content. Some of the more common ones are:

**Oats**

USA: 32 lb = 14.5150 kg

Canada: 34 lb = 15.4221 kg

Barley: 48 lb = 21.7724 kg

Malted barley 34 lb = 15.4221 kg

Shelled maize (corn) at 15.5% moisture by weight: 56 lb= 25.4012 kg

Wheat at 13.5% moisture by weight and soybeans at 13% moisture by weight: 60 lb = 27.2155 kg

Other specific values are defined (and those definitions may vary within different jurisdictions, including from state to state in the United States) for other grains, oilseeds, fruits, vegetables, coal, hair, and many other commodities.

Government policy in the United States is to phase out units such as the bushel and replace them with metric mass equivalents.

The name “bushel” has also been used to translate non-US units of a similar size and sometimes shared origin, like the German “Scheffel“.

History

The **bushel** was originally a measure of capacity for grain. During the Middle Ages, the bushel of wheat was supposed to weigh 64 tower pounds, but when the tower system was abolished in the 16th century, it was described as 56 avoirdupois pounds. The bushel was rarely used in Scotland, Ireland or Wales during the Middle Ages.