CONVERSION TABLES & FORMULAS
1 Bushel Equals Metric Weights and Conversions Ethanol
Wheat and Soybeans = 60 lbs. 1,000 grams = 1 kilogram
1 bushel of corn = 2.7 gallons of Ethanol
Corn, Sorghum and Rye = 56 Ibs. Barley Grain = 48 Ibs.
100 kilograms = 1 quintal Wet Mill
1 bushel of corn = 9.5-10 litres of ethanol
Barley Malt = 34 Ibs. 1 tonne = 1,000 kilograms = 10 quintals Dry Mill
1 bushel of corn = 9.8 litres of ethanol
Oats = 32 Ibs. 1 kilogram = 2.240622 Ibs.
1 quintal = 220.462 Ibs.
Bushels To Tonnes
1 tonne = 1.102 short tons 1 barrel = 42 US gallons = 34.97 UK (imperial) gallons
Wheat and Soybeans = bushels x 0.027216 1 tonne = 0.9842 long tons = 0.136 tonne (approx)
Barley Grain = bushels x 0.21772 20 pennyweights = 1 ounce 1 barrel per day (b/d) = 50 tonnes per year (approx)
Corn, Sorghum and Rye = bushels x 0.025401 16 ounces = 1 Ib. Crude Oil Dollars per Barrel / 5.826 = Dollars per Mmbtu
Oats = bushels x 0.014515 1 troy ounce = 31.103 grams
1 troy ounce = 0.0311033 kilogram
Natural Gas Conversion Factors
Yields 1 troy (fine) ounce = 480 grains 1 Cubic Feet (cf) = 1,031 BTU
Wheat: bushels per acre x 0.6725 = quintals per hectare 1 troy ounce = 155.52 metric carats 1 Cubic Meter = 35.315 Cubic Feet
Rye, Corn: bushels per acre x 0.6277 = quintals per hec.
1 troy pound = 0.37224 kilogram Deca Therm = 10 Therms = 1 Million Btu = 1 MMBtu
Barley: bushels per acre x 0.5380 = quintals per hectare 1 kilogram = 32.1507 troy ounces 1,000 cf = 1 MMBtu = 0.0001 Nat Gas NYMEX Contract
Oats: bushels per acre x 0.3587 = quintals per hectare 1 tonne = 32,151 troy ounces. 10 Million cf = 10,000 MMbtu = 1 Nat Gas NYMEX Contract
1 Billion cf= 1,000,000 MMBtu = 100 Nat Gas NYMEX Contracts
U.S. Liquid Volumes and Conversions
1 Tonne (metric ton) Equals 1 ounce = 1.8047 cubic inches = 29.6 millilitres
1 cubic meter of water 1 cup = 8 ounces = 0.24 litre = 237 millilitres 34 gigajoules natural gas makes
2204.622 Ibs. 1 pint = 16 ounces = 0.48 litre = 374 millilitres 1 tonne anhydrous ammonia
1,000 kilograms 1 gallon = 4 quarts = 231 cubic inches = 3.785 litres 1 Nat Gas NYMEX contract makes
22.046 hundredweight = 8.345 Ibs 298.53 tons anhydrous ammonia
10 quintals Gallons/1405.88 = Metric Tonnes 33,500 cubic ft nat gas makes 1 ton anhydrous ammonia
36.7437 bushels of Wheat or Soybeans 1 litre = 1.0567 quarts = 1,000 millilitres = 1,000 grams 1 million BTU’s = 1.054615 gigajoule
39.3683 bushels of Corn, Sorghum or Rye 1 millilitre = 0.033815 fluid ounce
45.9296 bushels of Barley Grain 1 litre = 33.814 fluid ounces
68.8944 bushels of Oats 1 imperial gallon = 277.42 cubic inches = 1.2 US Gall.
1 metric ton of 65 degree brix = 344.8 gallons at 42 degree brix
. 1 U.S. bushel = 8 corn/dry gallons = 2150.42 cu in ≈ 35.2391 liter ≈ 9.30918 wine/liquid gallons. The original definition was the volume of a cylinder 18.5 in (46.99 cm) in diameter and 8 in (20.32 cm) high, which gives an irrational number of cubic inches, but later this bushel was redefined as 2150.42 cubic inches, about 1 part per million less.
1 Imperial bushel = 8 Imperial gallons ≈ 36.3687 dm³ ≈ 2219.36 cu. in.
1 bushel = 4 pecks
Use as unit of weight
A bushel is an imperial and U.S. customary unit of dry volume, equivalent in each of these systems to 4 pecks or 8 gallons. It is used for volumes of dry commodities (not liquids), most often in agriculture. It is abbreviated as bsh. or bu. In modern usage, the dry volume is usually only nominal, with bushels referring to standard weights instead.
Bushels are now most often used as units of mass or weight rather than of volume. The bushels in which grains are bought and sold on commodity markets or at local grain elevators, and for reports of grain production, are all units of weight. This is done by assigning a standard weight to each commodity that is to be measured in bushels. These bushels depend on the commodities being measured and the moisture content. Some of the more common ones are:
USA: 32 lb = 14.5150 kg
Canada: 34 lb = 15.4221 kg
Barley: 48 lb = 21.7724 kg
Malted barley 34 lb = 15.4221 kg
Shelled maize (corn) at 15.5% moisture by weight: 56 lb= 25.4012 kg
Wheat at 13.5% moisture by weight and soybeans at 13% moisture by weight: 60 lb = 27.2155 kg
Other specific values are defined (and those definitions may vary within different jurisdictions, including from state to state in the United States) for other grains, oilseeds, fruits, vegetables, coal, hair, and many other commodities.
Government policy in the United States is to phase out units such as the bushel and replace them with metric mass equivalents.
The name “bushel” has also been used to translate non-US units of a similar size and sometimes shared origin, like the German “Scheffel“.
The bushel was originally a measure of capacity for grain. During the Middle Ages, the bushel of wheat was supposed to weigh 64 tower pounds, but when the tower system was abolished in the 16th century, it was described as 56 avoirdupois pounds. The bushel was rarely used in Scotland, Ireland or Wales during the Middle Ages.